Handheld XRF Analyzer

The most popular SuperbMelt precious metal handheld xrf analyzer for gold, silver, platinum

The handheld XRF analyzer is a non-destructive analytical tool that is used to detect the elements present in materials. 

The handheld XRF gold analyzer can identify the components of metals and alloys such as gold, silver, stainless steel, cobalt alloys, bronze, zinc, zinc alloy, nickel alloys, tungsten alloys, etc.

Handheld XRF analyzer works by measuring the fluorescent x-rays emitted from a sample when excited by a primary x-ray source. Each of the elements present in a material produces a set of characteristic fluorescent or unique fingerprints. These fingerprints are different for each material, therefore making the handheld XRF gold analysis an excellent tool for quantitative and qualitative measurements. 

The handheld XRF analyzer is used in the following industries; construction and environmental engineering, mining and exploration, precious metal recycling, oil and gas, automotive, etc. 

The handheld XRF analyzer offers unmatchable metal identification, designed for easy use, accuracy and reliable elemental analysis.                  

Analytical Method Energy dispersive X ray fluorescence analytical Method
Elements Measuring Range Atomic number from 12 to 92 [elements from magnesium(Mg) to uranium (U)] can be measured
Simultaneous detector elements Simultaneous analysis 40 elements
Microcomputer system Customized system; CPU: 1G ; system memory: 1G ; extended stored maximum support 32G ; standard 4G for mass storage data
The content range ppm~99.99%
The detection time 1-60 seconds (a second report results)
A built-in system GPS, WIFI, Bluetooth
Power Supply Rechargeable lithium battery, standard is 9000mAh, sustainable work up to 12 hours; optional is 27000mAh superbattery with wide voltage 110V ~ 220V universal adapter for recharging power supply
Detection Objective Solid, liquid, powder
Detector SDD detector or Fast-SDD detector (optional)
Detector resolution Minimum can reach 128eV
The excitation source 50KV/200uA- silver target end window integrated miniature X ray tube and high voltage power supply
Collimator and filter Collimator diameters are 4.0mm and 2.0mm, 6 kinds of filters with automatic switching functions
Video system 500W pixel high resolution camera
Display screen Brand new 5 inch transflective LCD touch screen, the resolution is 1080×720
Detection limit The minimum detection limits at 1 ~ 500 ppm
Safety Multiple safety protection, no tests, no radiation, radiation levels at work are far below the international safety standards, and has no sample telemetry, automatic shut X light tube function. Standard radiation shields, thickened wall alloy test instrument
Specialty Ore special edition analysis software, using intelligent one key test
Convenience of application Key intelligent matching the best curve that no need to select curve
Data transmission Digital multi-channel technology, SPI data transmission, quick analysis, the high count rate; waterproof mini USB, and can be connected with a desktop computer
Operating ambient humidity ≤90%
Operating environmental temperature -20℃~+50℃
Instrument dimension 244mm(Length)x 90mm(Width)x 330mm(Height)
Instrument weight 1.7Kg
Intelligent warning signalsIndicator system Green light means power on, red flushing means testing and yellow flushing means the problems
Accessories Three-military-protection-box is compression, waterproof and shock absorption. Universal charger and car charger, 4G SD memory card and card reader Two lithium battery and charger, PDA accessories, radiation shield. Optional accessories: the large battery, seat type test support, Bluetooth printer, mill, manual pressure machine, and other options can to choosen…
  • The handheld XRF analyzer is lightweight and best for performing crucial tasks for any weather condition, field environment and location. Therefore, no need to worry about lifting heaving analyzing equipment to different locations.
  • The handheld XRF analyzer saves significant expense and time when compared to traditional laboratory analysis. 
  • The shorter measurement times and superior detection capacity increases your productivity. 
  • The XRF portable analyzer is able to detect and measure these elements in materials: Au, Ag, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe,Sn, S, Hf, Ta, Mo, W, Si, Sb, etc.
  • The handheld XRF gold analyzer can detect contaminant metals and elements with little to no sample preparation, therefore providing fast and decisive results.
  • The handheld XRF analyzer has a rapid nondestructive detection and quick measurement by simply aiming at the material and able to report results of detection within seconds.
  • The large lithium battery is 27000mAh, this is capable of powering the XRF gold analyzer continuously for three days. A built in memory battery can replace the battery power should the main battery go off on site after three days.
  • The handheld alloy analyzer has a professional inbuilt application software that features easy testing and getting quick results.
  • The portable XRF analyzer has an inbuilt 500W pixels high definition camera that can observe the sample’s testing position which makes the measurement of elements accurate.
  • The handle XRF gold analyzer has a collimation filter system that has a combination of 12 groups, this makes it possible for the handheld analyzer to meet your requirements. 

Why SuperbMelt Handheld XRF Analyzer

Professional R&D Team:
Over 15 years R&D experience in gold machinery with a top engineer team supported
High Quality:
Only choose famous brand main electric components for production
ISO CE SGS Approved:
Professional certification bodies certify that the machines are of high quality

    Any Question About SuperbMelt Handheld XRF Analyzer

    XRF Gold Analyzer Buying Guide

    Chapter 1:

    Why do you need a Professional XRF Analyzer?

    A professional handheld XRF analyzer is a high-tech analysis solution designed to meet the tough challenges of a rapidly evolving industrial sector. The professional handheld XRF analyzer helps to streamline costs, minimize risk and increase production efficiency.

    The handheld XRF spectrometer provides high performance in-field testing instruments delivering materials and coating analysis that adds value to the production lifecycle from material exploration to incoming inspection, production and quality control.

    1.1, Do you really know that Precious Metals are Real?

    Precious metals are real and to detect the originality of a precious metal, a handheld XRF analyzer is needed. Precious metals are valuable, therefore making jeweller or other manufacturers to mix metals and other materials to fake the appearance of gold, silver, platinum or palladium.

    Gold plating and counterfeit items are just some of the challenges that jeweller, gold traders and pawn shop owners face on a daily basis. Businesses require accurate results to remove variability and subjectivity from determining item value to ensure a profitable transaction.

    The handheld XRF analyzer accurately determines the content of gold and all precious metals such as silver, platinum and palladium in materials. For precious metal analysis, such as jewelry or dental alloys, fast and nondestructive handheld XRF analyzers which require little sample preparation are most frequently used for analysis of precious metals.

    1.2, Make coins by manually pressed or “struck”

    Chemical assay, fire assay and other alternative methods of testing precious metals seem increasingly out of date in the 21st century. The handheld XRF analyzer puts the state of the art metal testing method into your hands.

    Precious metals are today of interest for jewelry, industrial use, and investment. With the handheld XRF analyzer, materials can be detected and tested for content and purity with extreme cases.

    Detecting the authenticity of precious metals can be done in a number of ways. The most common methods are:

    Naked eye or using a jeweller’s loupe- An experienced jeweler can verify the authenticity and quality of some jewelry by looking at it under magnification. This method is not always accurate.

     

    Weight/density measurement- Gold is a dense metal, the idea behind this test that if you drop a gold piece in water and measure how much liquid it displaces, you can determine whether it is pure gold. However, gold is often alloyed with other metals in legitimate jewelry, making this test unreliable.

    Markings- Gold jewelry sometimes has identifying marks that indicate its purity, such as 24k or 20k, but these can be faked.

     

    Nitric acid- A piece of gold is scratched against a testing slab to leave a mark. Nitric acid is applied to the mark to see whether it will dissolve. Depending on the acid’s concentration, the purity of the gold can be determined. This method however causes damages to precious metals.

    XRF analysis method is a completely nondestructive method, XRF analysis leaves the jewelry intact and undamaged. The portable XRF analyzer sends x-rays into the jewelry, exciting the atoms and causing them to fluoresce energy back to the analyzer’s detector. This tool uses fluorescence x-rays to determine the jewelry’s material chemistry.

     

    With the use of the Silicon Drift Detector (SDD), it is used for fire assay analysis of precious metals. Fire assay determines precious metal content by measuring weight loss after removing base metals through cupellation. Handheld XRF analyzer on the other hand uses x-ray fluorescence to excite the sample and calculate returning characteristic x-rays.

    A skilled operator of fire assay can produce results that are accurate up to 0.035%. This process takes time and most times results often differ when testing is done several times.

    Anyone above the age of 18 can be taught how to operate the handheld XRF analyzer in less than an hour.

    For speedy and accurate evaluation of precious metals, handheld XRF is the tool of choice.

    1.3, Identify and Avoid Fake Precious Metals

    Handheld XRF analyzer works accurately when it comes to analyzing precious metal swiftly, precisely, easily and non-destructively. This is a tremendous value to all precious metal specialists, recyclers, refiners, miners, bulk jewelry producers, etc.

    Given today’s high value for precious metals, many jewelry stores have become involved in the purchase of old jewelry and scrap jewelry. Using a handheld XRF analyzer, it is possible to determine the content of the item offered for sale and its karat value in less than a minute.

    The handheld XRF analyzer can identify karats and percentage of gold and percentage of silver, platinum and palladium in less than 5 seconds as well as perform a complete analysis in less than 10 seconds. Since the handheld XRF displays the value to one hundredth of a decimal point, you will not only be able to identify if the precious material you are buying is below karat, you will also be able to identify by exactly how much.

    This non-destructive method can analyze gold (Au), silver (Ag), Platinum (Pt), Palladium (Pd) and many more precious metal and base metal alloys: karat gold, low grade gold, gold plated, gold plated, silver grades, platinum alloys.

    gold testing machine for jewelry

    Using handheld XRF analyzers to test and analyze precious metals encompasses a multitude of advantages. Precious metals are not exposed to harsh chemicals during testing and analysis.

    Chapter 2:

    What Types of XRF Analyzers are in the Market?

    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is a common investigative technique capable of providing qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of a chemical sample. XRF analyzers are based on the principle that atoms absorb energy from the X-rays, become momentarily excited and then give off secondary X-rays.

    There are two major types of Energy Dispersive (ED) XRF analyzers available in the market; handheld and desktop configurations.

    2.1, Desktop XRF Analyzer

    The desktop XRF analyzer is also known as a benchtop XRF analyzer. They are capable of simple element identification and qualification up to more sophisticated analysis. Desktop XRF analyzers generally provide higher sensitivity and resolution as well as a wider elemental range because they utilize more powerful x-ray sources. The more x-rays going in, the more fluorescent x-rays coming out.

    The desktop XRF analyzer is easy to operate, compact and x-ray safe instruments without a need for additional chemicals or operating gasses.

    XRF Gold Analyzer

    When looking at the benefits of desktop XRF analyzer, a major benefit is the user free operation when a programmable stage is included in the system. This functionality allows the user to measure multiple points per sample and/or multiple samples per run without manually setting up each measurement.

     

    This offers great efficiency to organizations because the XRF operator can set samples up and return later.
    Additional benefits of the desktop XRF analyzers include the multiple collimators, mapping functions and the versatility that they offer in specific applications.

    All the features and benefits offered by the desktop XRF analyzer make them the best fit for most coating thickness measurement interests. The component configuration allows the desktop system to measure more than single layer coatings. Other features of the desktop XRF analyzer include; flexible configurations, latest software development that makes the XRF analyzer easy to use, power efficiency, fast and sensitive.

    gold testing machine

    The desktop XRF analyzer is widely used in a variety of industries and applications, even when light element analysis is of utmost importance. The desktop XRF analyzer is used for the following applications: Cement production, mining, mineral beneficiation, petroleum and petrochemicals, polymers and related industries, glass production, forensics, pharmaceuticals, healthcare products, environmental, food and cosmetics.

    2.2, Handheld XRF Analyzer

    Handheld XRF analyzer is also known as portable XRF gun. Handheld XRF analyzers offer the ability to analyze materials on site or in the field, without having to take samples back to the lab. The handheld XRF analyzer looks somewhat like an electric drill or pistol. This handheld analyzer for instance can be used by geologists, who might wish to perform on-site material analysis, or facilities managers, who might want to access the metallurgy of steel pipe welds.

    The greatest benefit of the handheld XRF analyzer is the portability, that is the small size it provides, this allows the handheld XRF analyzer to be easily transported for immediate use and on-site analysis. The inbuilt XRF analyzer battery is capable of lasting for several hours of analysis on work sites.

    While beneficial in many applications this is highlighted in mining related applications when quick decisions save time and money. In addition to this, the handheld material analyzer does not require that samples fit in a chamber so they are excellent in situations with large sample pieces such as weld analysis of large pipes, alloy analysis in aerospace applications, scrap recycling, etc.

    The handheld XRF analyzer application fields include: Mining and exploration, precious metal alloy, iron and steel smelting, waste metal recycling, machinery manufacturing and recycling, boiler pressure vessel, aerospace industry, ship building, scrap sorting, jewelry making, archeology, etc.

    There may be a price overlap between the handheld XRF analyzer and the desktop XRF analyzer, most handheld configurations have the benefit of low cost acquisition.

    How the handheld XRF analyzer differs from the desktop XRF analyzer:

    When you need a quick measurement- Aiming the portable XRF gun to the test materials and getting the result within a few seconds is the go to option.

    Flexibility- Whichever sample you want to analyze, liquid, plastic, minerals, powder or big rocks, the handheld XRF gun is always ready to analyze on the go.

    Indication- The handheld XRF machine delivers quality results while being fully able to cope with mobility requirements, automatically correcting for ambient temperature and pressure fluctuations. With the handheld XRF analyzer, users can easily select materials without any calibration.

    Mobility and long lasting battery power- Handheld XRF analyzers can be carried around with an inbuilt battery which allows you to analyze for many hours in the field. The desktop XRF analyzer on the other hand does not have an inbuilt battery, the XRF analyzer has to be connected to a power source. The desktop XRF analyzer is more suitable for stationary element analysis rather than moving from one work site to another. It is mostly used in laboratories, offices, jewelry stores, etc.

    2.3, Modern Techniques of Identifying Original Gold

    Recently the originality of gold and other precious metals can be detected by any of these techniques: Fire assay, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Desktop analyzer and Handheld XRF analyzer. All these techniques are designed to analyze the elemental composition of precious metal.

    Fire AssayAtomic Absorption SpectroscopyDesktop AnalyzerHandheld Analyzer
    Fire assay is done by completely melting the gold sample, removing all impurities and then measuring the remaining content after it is cooled.AAS is usually done with the principle of absorption of optical radiation. This technique makes use of wavelengths of light specifically absorbed by an element.The desktop XRF analyzer works on the principle that individual atoms, when excited by an energy source, emits x-ray photons of characteristic wavelengths.The handheld XRF analyzer is based on the principle of emitting a beam of x-ray photons which hits the atom of the material being analyzed.
    The process is used in a foundry, etc.It is used in a laboratory and for learning purposes.It is used in laboratories, jewelry stores, etc.It is used in pharmaceuticals, jewelry, aerospace, construction, mining, etc.
    Analysis takes some hours depending on the crucible and furnace in use.Analysis and results are ready in some minutesAnalysis and results are analyzed in some minutes.Analysis and results are analyzed in seconds.
    It requires some level of expertise and cannot be transported from one place to another.It is easy to use but may be difficult to transport.It is easy to test but not so easy to transport from one place to another.It is easy to test and transport from one site to another because of its lightweight size.
    The process is less accurate.The process is accurate.The process is very accurate.The process is very accurate.
    Minimal loss of precious metal.No loss of precious material.No loss of precious material.No loss of precious material.
    More labour intensive.Less labour intensive.Less labour intensive.Less labour intensive.
    Chapter 3:

    How does the Superbmelt Handheld Analyzer Work?

    XRF refers to x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. XRF is a nondestructive analytical technique used to determine the elemental composition of materials. Superbmelt handheld XRF analyzer works by measuring the fluorescent or secondary x-rays emitted from a sample when excited by a primary x-ray source. Each of the elements present in a sample produces a set of characteristic fluorescent x-rays. These x-rays are different for each element, therefore making the handheld XRF analyzer an excellent tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis.
    Step by step XRF analysis:

    1. X-rays are produced by the analyzer and pointed at a sample surface.
    2. The energy causes the inner-shell electrons to be ejected.
    3. Outer-shell electrons fill the vacancies left by the ejected electrons and fluorescent x-rays are emitted.
    4. The fluorescent x-rays enter the detector and send electronic pulses to the preamp.
    5. The preamp amplifies the signals and sends them to the Digital Signal Processor (DSP).
    6. The DSP collects and digitizes the x-ray events and sends the spectral data to the main CPU for processing.
    7. The CPU analyzes the spectral data to produce detailed composition analysis.
    8. Composition data and other grade or value identification are displayed and stored in memory for later recall or download to an external PC.

    3.1, The Principle of Superbmelt Handheld XRF Analyzer

    Superbmelt handheld XRFspectrometer is based on the principle that individual atoms when excited by an internal source energy, emit x-ray photons of a characteristic energy or wavelength. By counting the number of photons of each energy emitted from a sample, the elements present in a material are identified and quantified.

    Here is a detailed breakdown of the process:

    An x-ray beam with enough energy to affect the electrons in the inner shells of the atoms in a sample material is created by an x-ray tube inside the handheld XRF analyzer. The x-ray beam is then emitted from the front end of the handheld XRF analyzer.

    The x-ray beam then interacts with the atoms in the sample material by displacing electrons from the inner orbital shells of the atom.

    This displacement occurs as a result of the difference in energy between the primary x-ray beam emitted from the XRF analyzer and the binding energy that holds electrons in their proper orbits; this displacement occurs when the x-ray beam energy is higher than the binding energy of the electrons with which it interacts. Electrons are fixed at specific energies in their positions in an atom, and this determines their orbits. In addition to this, the spacing between the orbital shells of an atom is unique to the atoms of each element, so an atom of potassium (K) has different spacing between its electron shells than an atom of gold (Au), or silver (Ag), etc.

    When electrons are knocked out of their orbit, they leave behind vacancies, making the atom unstable. The atom must immediately correct the instability by filling the vacancies that the displaced electrons left behind. Those vacancies can be filled from higher orbits that move down to a lower orbit where a vacancy exists. For example, if an electron is displaced from the innermost shell of the atom (that is, the one closest to the nucleus), an electron from the next shell up can move down to fill the vacancy- this is fluorescence.

    Electrons have higher binding energies the further they are from the nucleus of the atom. Therefore, an electron loses some energy when it drops from a higher electron shell to an electron shell closer to the nucleus. The amount of energy lost is equivalent to the difference in energy between the two electron shells, which is determined by the distance between them. The distance between the two orbital shells is unique to each element, as mentioned above.

    The energy lost can be used to identify the element from which it emanates, because the amount of energy lost in the fluorescence process is unique to each element. The individual fluorescent energies detected are specific to the elements that are present in the sample material. In order to determine the quantity of each element present, the proportion in which the individual energies appear can be calculated by the handheld XRF spectrometer.

    The entire fluorescence process occurs in small factions of a second. A measurement using this process and a modern handheld XRF gun can be made in a matter of seconds.

    3.2, The Features of Superbmelt Handheld XRF Analyzer

    Superbmelt handheld XRF analyzer has the following features that ensures accurate analysis of materials on various work sites.

    • The handheld XRF analyzeruses an energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analytical method. This analytical method is a nondestructive, rapid, multielement, highly accurate, environmentally friendly analysis technique compared with other elemental detection methods.
    • Thehandheld XRF can measure atomic elements from number 12 to 92; that is elements from magnesium to uranium on the periodic table.
    • Superbmelt XRF analyzerhas a customized system, CPU:1G; system memory: 1G; extended stored maximum support 32G; standard 4G for mass storage data.
    • The content range is ppm-99.99%.
    • The detection and analysis time is between 1 to 60 seconds.
    • The inbuilt system has a GPS, WiFi and bluetooth. This function is to track location and send analyzed results to other devices.
    • The handheld XRF gunhas a rechargeable 9000mAh lithium battery that is sustainable for 12 hours. It has an additional 27000mAh superbattery with wide voltage 110V to 220V universal adapter for recharging the battery.
    • Superbmelt handheld XRF gunis able to detect elements in solid, liquid or powder form.
    • The handheld XRF analyzer has an optional SDD detector that is useful when analyzing light elements such as aluminium, sulphur, magnesium, silicon and phosphorus.
    • The detector resolution can reach up to 128eV.
    • The XRF gun has an excitation source of 50KV/200uA. The silver target end window integrates a miniature x-ray tube and high voltage power supply for the XRF analyzer.
    • Superbmelt XRF analyzercollimator diameters are 4.0mm and 2.0mm. The XRF analyzer has 6 different filters that switch automatically.
    • The XRF handled gunhas a 500W high resolution camera for the documentation of the tested samples.
    • The LCD screen is 5 inches, enabling proper display and viewing of analyzed results. The resolution is 1080 x 720.
    • The minimum detection limit of Superbmelt handheld XRF gunis 1 to 500ppm
    • The XRF analyzeris safe to use, causing no radiation. Radiation levels at work are far below the international safety standards. The handheld XRF analyzer has no sample of telemetry, automatic shut X light tube function.
    • The application of results is easy, matching the best curve.
    • The XRF analyzerhas a digital multi-channel technology, SPI data transmission, quick analysis. The XRF analyzer has a waterproof USB that can be connected to a computer.
    • The operating ambient humidity is ≤90% while the operating temperature is -20°C -+50°C.
    • Superbmelt handheld XRF analyzeris L244mm x W90mm x H330mm dimension. Weighing a total of 1.7kg. Making the analyzer easy to move around.
    • The XRF analyzerhas an intelligent warning signal indicator system. Green light means power is on, red flushing means testing is on and yellow means there is an error.
    • A whole portable XRF machinecomes in a military protection box that protects the XRF analyzer. Other items contained in the box include: universal charger, 4G SD memory card and card reader, two lithium battery and charger, PDA accessories, radiation shield, etc.

    3.3, The Benefits of Superbmelt Handheld Analyzer

    The following are the benefits derived from using Superbmelt handheld XRF analyzer:

    • Superbmelt handheld XRF analyzeris lightweight (weighing 1.7kg), therefore making it easy to transport to different work sites for analysis of heavy materials. The ergonomic handle design makes it easy to grasp and convenient for use.
    • The 5 inches high definition screen rotates at 360 degrees and it is capable of displaying during the day or at night.
    • The waterproof and dustproof functions make the XRF analyzer adaptable to any kind of weather or harsh environment.
    • Superbmelthandheld XRF analyzer performs a nondestructive, accurate and quick analysis as against traditional lab testing processes.
    • The handheld XRF analyzercan detect elements such as tin, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, gallium, germanium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, gold, bismuth, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, etc.
    • Superbmelt handheld XRF analyzercan run without helium due to the near optical path design, that is able to detect light elements like magnesium, aluminium, sulphur, phosphorus and silicon.
    • The 2700mAh battery can last up to 3 days. It is equipped with a car charger to ensure the battery remains charged even on work sites.
    • There is no need for water, compressed air or gases before the handheld XRF analyzercan be used.
    • Using a Superbmelt handheld XRF gunrequires little preventive maintenance.
    • The handheld XRF analyzerrequires low electrical consumption and an improved system resolution.
    • The handheld XRF analyzer has a professional inbuilt software that is suitable for use across many industries.
    • Superbmelthandheld XRF analyzer is suitable for use in industries such as precious metal, iron and steel smelting, metal scrap and recycling, shipbuilding, aerospace, pharmaceuticals, food processing, etc.
    Chapter 4:

    Conclusion

    Before buying a handheld XRF analyzer, there are certain points you should consider what you want to achieve. For instance, if you are looking to confirm the quality of precious metals for your jewelry company or to confirm alloy grades for incoming goods, you will want to know the important element in those grades. Dangerous equipment failures, excessive downtime, loss of profit and ruined reputation are some of the implications manufacturers who do not verify the materials coming into the plant or leaving the plant in the form of finished products face.

    4.1. Price

    The most common question when purchasing a handheld XRF analyzer is that involving the handheld XRF price. The handheld XRF price varies due to the fact that different applications require different calibrations and hardware. A handheld XRF analyzer that is calibrated for light elements in alloys requires a faster, more sensitive detector than an XRF calibrated for basic alloys where light elements are not a concern.

    It is clear that the XRF analyzer cost is driven by the actual needs of the customer. Regardless of the XRF analyzer price, the amount saved over traditional analysis far outweighs the initial upfront cost.

    4.2. Durability

    Handheld XRF analyzers are mostly required in a busy and harsh working environment. There can be sharp edges on manufacturing machinery or produced parts, broken and torn metal throughout the recycling facility and lots of sharp edges on fasteners, screws and bolts on pipelines. These handheld XRF analyzers are also used in environments that contain excess dirt, dust and moisture.

    If you are investing in the handheld XRF analyzer, then you should make sure it is rugged and reliable. So before purchasing, make sure they are durable, but that your operators handle them with care. Look for these features that make the handheld XRF analyzer durable: Detector protection, IP54 certified, lightweight but tough, ergonomically designed. In addition to the weight of the analyzer, the design is also important. If it is difficult to handle, it could slip from hand when in use. Battery durability also contributes to the handheld XRF analyzer durability.

    4.3. Maintenance

    The maintenance of the handheld XRF analyzer is very easy, more like preventive maintenance. The XRF analyzer requires careful use during analysis and cleaning of dust or water residue after each use. The XRF analyzer should be stored in the military box that accompanied the analyzer.

    4.4. Servicing

    The portable XRF analyzer requires servicing after purchase. Keeping up to date with the servicing of your portable XRF analyzer is highly important. Superbmelt offers servicing to all purchased handheld XRF analyzers. Yearly servicing of handheld XRF analysers are recommended as a preventative maintenance process in order to extend the life of the instrument and check for any ongoing issues and the calibration and make sure the instrument is performing optimally. Our in-house technician uses problem solving and technical understanding to ensure your XRF analyzer works accurately and does not develop any fault. During the servicing process, software is updated, calibration is updated, internal board is replaced, etc. Therefore, choose a company that offers you servicing of your XRF analyzer.

    4.5. The Environmental Impacts

    The instrument specifications that matter most when selecting a handheld XRF analyzer are the ones related to your environment. Think about where and how the XRF analyzer will be used. Considerations include:

    IP rating: An IP rating means the analyzer is resistant to dust and water. This helps ensure your portable XRF machine can handle the rigors of rugged industrial environments.

    Drop tested: Tools sometimes get dropped or misplaced, but one drop shouldn’t put you out of business. Consider an instrument that has been drop tested to help prevent costly repairs.

    Operating temperature: When testing in hot environments, consider an instrument that can sustain all-day testing in hot environments.

    4.6. The Best Conditions for using a XRF Analyzer

    Portable and handheld XRF analyzers are lightweight, rugged, and can be operated in the field anytime, anywhere. The handheld XRF analyzer works best at a humidity of ≤90%.

    Chapter 5:

    FAQ Guide

    How do you make a coin die?

    All the coins struck through the minting process are struck by a pair of durable dies. Speaking about a coin die, a steel rod has a face that will be the same size as the coins you want to produce. The steel rod will carry the design for just one side of the coin. So, to strike a coin, two such streel rods will be used. One steel rod will carry the obverse design, and another rod will have the reverse design.

    Before making dies, the artistic representations are accurately digitized in 3D and then sent to an advanced CNC- Computer, Numeric Control milling machine, replicating the design on the steel rod's end. This is called the Master Hub. This is the first step of the die making process.

    The master hub will be then put into a powerful hydraulic press to press it against another steel rod to create the second piece. This will carry the negative or reverse image of the coin design, and this is called the Master Die and the second step of this process.

    Now, master dies are placed under hydraulic presses and then forced on more steel pieces to produce the Working Hubs. After getting Working Hubs, these are processed once again to make Working Dies. Generally, working dies are used to manufacture coins. One pair of dies can be utilized to create thousands of coins.

    What does a coin die look like?

    Speaking about a coin die's physical appearance, a steel rod has a face of the same size as the coins. One die will carry the coin's front design, and another die will have the reverse design.

    What does minting coins mean?

    In simple words, minting is the process of coin manufacturing. This process includes pressing pieces of metal with designs. These are the designs that you will show the coin's denomination. The image or design may also have some security features and about the country minting the coins. The process is generally carried out by mint, producer of coins, and handling the coins' distribution.

    Can I mint my own coins?

    Yes, you can. If you want to make your own coins, then you can always take the help of SuperbMelt. We can offer your all types of assistance for dies and coin manufacturing. We will provide different options to make your coins look distinctive and original. You can create your own custom coin striking dies and produce coins using our coin die making machine. So, go on and start your own coin minting line now.

    How coins are made step by step?

    Here are the steps following which you can create fine gold coins.

    Use a powerful casting machine or use a gold ingot machine to create a sheet or bullion. After getting the sheet, you need to put that into a rolling machine. To obtain the desired thickness, roll the sheet multiple times. While doing this, make sure that the metal is soft.

    Now, using a powerful tonnage hydraulic press, punch the sheet to get the coin shape. You can go for a round or square shape.

    Put the blank coins into your annealing furnace and then re-annealed it. After that, you can put the coin into the acid to remove the dirt. Remove the blank coins from the acid and keep them in a tumbler. Then add soapy water and white glass particles to clean them.

    Now, press the coins with a hydraulic coin pressing machines carrying the logo. That's it; now you have your own gold coins.

    How do you draw a gold coin?

    To draw a gold coin, you can use graphics software to create designs that you want to engrave on your gold coins.

    What are coin dies made of?

    Coin die is the most crucial part of the coin making process. This is the thing that will be pressed on the blank, and it carries the design of the coin. So, it needs to be very durable. For this, most of the coin manufacturers prefer to produce coin striking dies from hardened steel. Dies made of this material can produce thousands of coins before they are defaced.

    How were ancient coin dies made?

    There is still no accurate answer about how the ancient made a coin die to struck the coins. You will not find any written record about the process. To give you an idea about this, we have tried our best to reconstruct the process of ancient coin dies making from the pieces of evidence and surviving artifacts that we have.

    As per the available pieces of evidence, old coin dies were made of hard iron or bronze. If you consider a bronze coin die, you will find them easy to engrave, and they don't rust. However, the only demerit of this die is it will lose its ability to sustain pressure faster. It is expected that iron dies were used for striking large silver coins, decadrachm, tetradrachms, and more they have traces of die rust. Besides, these ideas had also to be used for large bronze coins.

    However, there is no accurate information about how the coin dies were sunk. Based on some archaeological evidence and ancient coins, it is expected that a coining team could manufacturer around 20,000 strikes before wearing out a set of dies.

    If you look at the Ancient roman coins, you will see standardized portraits on all the coins. The interesting question here is how the portraits can be so uniform as the coin dies were engraved individually by different artisans. So, here we can consider two replication processes. These are; Hubbing and Casting die. It is a fact that to cast bronze dies for coins, the Greeks used lead or bronze die patterns. They used the lost wax process.

    However, as they used the hand-held technique for die and coin making, it often led to off-center and weak strikes. Some ancient coins also have misaligned strikes. So, you will find all the ancient coins will be a little different from each other.

    What is a die break on a coin?

    Speaking about a die break, it is a form of failure when the coin die falls out or breaks off. Most of the mint workers or coin manufacturers called this a piece-out. A marginal die break happens when the coins are struck from a die that misses a piece adjacent to the rim. When not adequately connected to the rim, the tiny die breaks, called die chips.

    The majority of die breaks happens at the margin of the die. There will be a sharp junction between the die face and die neck that is prone to failure. The die breaks that involve the rim and a little portion of the field is called the cuds.

    As per the experts, the longer the coin striking dies are in use, the larger the die breaks occur. So, after a specific time, you should replace the dies with new pieces.

    The coins' value having a die crack or break will depend on the fracture's severity and size.

    How coin dies are made?

    Coins dies are made through four critical processes as mentioned above, i.e., creating a master hub, making master die, preparing working hubs, and making working dies from working hubs.

    What is a die mark on a coin?

    Die marks are like tiny marks and letters that appear on the coins to know about the die used to create the coins.

    How gold coins are made?

    As discussed above, all the coins are made through the mint. The entire coin manufacturing process is called minting. Silver and gold coins are a small part of a range of different coins a professional mint produces. Nowadays, precious metal coins, for example, Canadian Maple, South African Krugerrand, and American Eagle, are produced as bullion coins that are generally used for investment. In some countries, gold coins are manufactured under license from mints and central banks. National banks and governments usually control such coins. Well, here are the processes of gold coin making.

    The first step in gold coin making is to melt the required precious metals in a furnace using a high-quality crucible that you can buy from SuperbMelt. We will suggest you go for graphite crucible for this. Gold metal generally melts at 1064-degree Celsius, and silver melts at 961-degree Celsius. The excess heat then channeled to heat the water utilized in the process.

    Coils around 40 to 50 meters long, weighing one tonne, are made from the melted metal. Once done, the coils are then rolled up, applying heavy pressure of around 200 to 300 tonnes. Then, they are cut down into blanks.

    Now, it's time to create the design that you need to print on the gold coin. Many companies take the help of professional artists to craft a draft design before developing a plaster model. This is a process that can take around one year to get completed. The model is scanned through digital technology to create coin dies and punches. Powerful and computer-controlled engraving machines will then cut it with maximum accuracy to 0.001mm.

    After the completion of coin blanks and dies, the striking process takes place. Under heavy pressure, the coin stamping dies are pressed into gold blanks. Once done, you will get finished gold coins.

    The gold coin striking dies are replaced after a specific time when they become worn. So, to keep your gold coin making process running smoothly, make sure that you have a sufficient number of identical hubs to replace the dies.

    After this, coins are minted, and before making them available to use, gold coins are meticulously inspected. If they pass the inspection round, they will be sent for circulation. So, this is the detailed process of gold coin making. When producing gold or other precious coins, purity and precision take topmost priority. For this, blanks are manually placed in the coin press and checked individually for quality.

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